Burkett Archeological Site [25-NC-01] Listed 1974/07/12
Situated on a prominent natural terrace near the Loup River valley near Genoa, the Burkett Site comprises numerous earthlodge ruins covering an area of over 100 acres. The site is attributed to the Lower Loup Phase, protohistoric ancestors of the historic Pawnee. The village is believed to have been occupied by the Skidi band of the Pawnee during the early seventeenth century. Fifteen lodge sites and five trash heaps, or middens, were excavated, yielding an enormous artifact collection including over 20,000 pieces of pottery.
Horse Creek Pawnee Village [25-NC-02] Listed 1974/07/12
The Horse Creek Pawnee village, lcoated in the Fullerton vicinity, was originally constructed by the Grand and Republican bands in 1809, who then occupied it until about 1820 when the Republican band left. Shortly afterwards the Grand Pawnee moved elsewhere, probably to the Clarks Site, and the Republican band reestablished residence at Horse Creek with the Tappage band. The site was finally abandoned in 1842. The village reached maximum size in the early 1820s when it was reported to consist of 180 earthlodges accommodating 900 families with a total population of over 3,500.
Wright Site [25-NC-03] Listed 1973/08/14
Sometime between A.D. 1600 and 1750 the ancestors of the Skidi Pawnee occupied this immense village on a prominent terrace overlooking Beaver Creek and the Loup River near present-day Genoa. Archeological research at the site included excavation of ten earthlodge ruins. Over fifty human skeletons were discovered on the floor of one lodge, apparently the victims of a massacre.
Cottonwood Creek Archeological Site [25-NC-05] Listed 1974/10/18
Members of the 1820 Stephen Long expedition were the first Americans to visit this fortified Pawnee village near the Loup River in the vicinity of the present-day town of Palmer. Edwin James and other members of the Long party describe the village as containing about fifty lodges occupied by over 1,000 Republican and Tappage Pawnee under the leadership of Fool Robe. The village was probably abandoned prior to 1845.
Genoa Site [25-NC-06] Listed 1970/10/15
After nearly three decades of Sioux harassment and epidemic diseases, all four bands of the Pawnee Confederation agreed by an 1857 treaty to congregate at a single village near their agency on Beaver Creek, near present-day Genoa. Genoa was the final village of the Pawnee in Nebraska and was continuously occupied from 1847 to 1876, when the tribe was transferred to a reservation in Oklahoma. The site included the village, an earthen fortification, agency buildings, cemeteries, and trading posts.
Fullerton Archeological Site [25-NC-07] Listed 1974/11/01
Constructed by the Skidi band of the Pawnee in 1842, the Fullerton earthlodge village, located near Fullerton, was also home to other bands until it was burned by the Sioux in 1846. William Clayton described the abandoned village in 1847, noting that all but one of the approximately 200 lodge sites were in ruins. He also described a fortification ditch and embankment constructed by the Pawnee to discourage Sioux raiding parties, an undertaking that was evidently unsuccessful.
Cunningham Archeological Site [25-NC-10] Listed 1975/02/13
The Cunningham Site, near present-day Fullerton, may represent one of the more unusual elements of Pawnee culture. In 1914 a Skidi Pawnee named White Eagle identified the site as the location of the 1830 Skidi "Ancient Village" and also as the spot where the final human sacrifice in the Morning Star Ceremony occurred. Archeological investigations uncovered a patch of fired earth and two post holes-possibly the remains of a Morning Star scaffold. Additional excavations exposed several earthlodge floors, dating at least four centuries prior to the emergence of the historic Pawnee.
Pawnee Mission and Burnt Village Archeological Site [25-NC-14] Listed 1974/08/07
In the spring of 1841, Presbyterian missionary John Dunbar left Bellevue with the intention of establishing a permanent mission in the heart of Pawnee country. A site was selected on Plum Creek and several log buildings erected. Encouraged by Dunbar, many members of the Grand, Tappage and Republican bands of the Pawnee constructed a village near the mission in the spring of 1842. Dunbar's effort to convert the Pawnee met with only marginal success.The final blow came in the early summer of 1843 when a Sioux war party attacked the Pawnee village, burning twenty lodges and killing nearly seventy residents. The Pawnee moved following the attack, and the mission, located in the Genoa vicinity, ceased operation several years later.
Moses Merrill Baptist Camp, pdf (Broken Arrow Wilderness and Camp) [NC00-002] Listed 2004/04/14
Located near the Cedar River in Nance County, the Nebraska Baptist State Convention purchased the property in 1942. The Baptists planned to make the site one of the most complete summer religious camps in the Midwest. The result was that by the early 1950s almost every phase of the Nebraska's Baptist Church program activity was represented at the camp. Additionally, the area that encompasses this district is rich in history. A Native American presence, pioneer immigration, and a Civilian Conservation Corps camp all share an historical relationship with this unique area.
U.S. Indian Industrial School, pdf [NC03-001] Listed 1978/05/22
Founded in 1884, the U.S. Indian Industrial School was located on 320 acres in the town of Genoa. Opening with only one building, the school grew to include thirty-nine structures and a maximum student population of 600 children. The two-story brick shop building was constructed in 1907 (1911 addition), and housed the blacksmithing, carpentry, tailoring, and harness-making shops. The harness shop contains wall murals that depict horse teams and harness ware, providing visual instructions for the students in harness-making. Other buildings that still remain include the 1910 horse barn, the 1917 dairy barn, a cattle barn, the blacksmith shop constructed about 1922, the machine shed built in the 1920s, and several cottages, which served as residences for school employees. The school was one of twenty-five bonded, non-reservation boarding schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to provide academic and vocational training to Indian children. It was one of the first non-reservation schools (and the only one in Nebraska) to give instruction for grades one through twelve. The school closed in 1934. The shop building is presently owned by the city of Genoa and used as a museum.
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