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Paper is manufactured from the cellulose fibers of plants, primarily cotton, flax, and wood. The fibers are reduced to a pulp and then formed into a felted sheet on a screen or a sieve. Types of paper include laid, woven, hand-made, or machine-made.

It is important to understand that parchment or vellum and papyrus are not considered paper.

  • Parchment or vellum is animal hide covered in lime and dried under tension.
  • Papyrus is not considered paper. Papyrus is made from the moist outer skins of water reeds that have been lined up at right angles to each other and then beaten until the layers become interlocked.

Paper objects:

  • Don't tape paper tears.
  • Protect paper-based prints from light.
  • Don't laminate.
  • Don't glue to a backboard.

Paper objects include:

  • photos
  • works of art
  • books
  • scrapbooks
  • newspaper
  • documents
  • photo albums
  • bibles

More Resources (pdf)
Cleaning Paper Based Objects
Matting and Framing
More on Foxing

Paper Framing
Paper Mattes and Frames
Mechanical Reproduction or Artist Original ?
Bibles, Declarations of Independence, Newspapers, and Signed Book
Newspaper Clippings



Preservation Principles

Types of Material


Types of Objects
   Books / Bibles / Scrapbooks
   Works of Art
   Textiles / Clothing / Uniforms
   Tools / Mechanical / Instruments
   Dishes / Glassware / Silverware
   Native American Items
   Natural History Specimens

More Resources
   Preservation Documents  (pdfs)
   Glossary of Terms
   See what we've done

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Staff   (directory)

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